ChlorOut™ – reducing corrosion, fouling and emissions in bio-fired power plants.
ChlorOut is a technical solution that improves plant performance by reducing corrosion, fouling and emissions in plants that burn chloride-containing fuels.
ChlorOut AB is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vattenfall AB and was founded in 2011 to market the ChlorOut concept and associated services. Our clients include boiler manufacturers, power plant technology suppliers and utility companies.
Our main business is to provide technology licences to clients in the global power industry, primarily boiler manufacturers, technology suppliers and engineering companies looking for an innovative and cost effective way to reduce material and maintenance costs for biomass and waste fired boilers.
The ChlorOut concept, developed at the beginning of this century, is a technical solution that reduces corrosion and deposit problems in biomass and waste fired boilers.
It can also be used for simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides in the flue gas, thus eliminating the need for traditional deNOx chemicals, which can be problematic from an occupational health and safety perspective. The concept has also been proven effective in reducing dioxin emissions.
A ChlorOut additive is injected into the flue gas upstream of the superheaters. This causes a rapid and effective conversion of the alkali chlorides in the flue gas to alkali sulphates, which are less harmful from a corrosion and deposit point of view. If ammonium sulphate is used as additive, a simultaneous reduction of the NOx content in the flue gases also occurs (SNCR reaction).
Our own measuring instrument, IACM (In-situ Alkali Chloride Monitor) measures the concentration of gaseous alkali chlorides (KCl and NaCl) on-line and this information is provided to the control room.
IACM is used for the automatic control of the required amount of the ChlorOut additive and also enables on-line quality control of the incoming fuel mix.
Four week demonstration in 100 MWth CHP plant.
From the two images it is clearly visible that adding the ChlorOut additive prevents the deposits and corrosion products that otherwise appear on superheater tubes.
The plant is run on demolition wood. After four years of operation parts of the superheater were replaced because of corrosion, which was measured as 0.5 mm per year. After the ChlorOut system was introduced the corrosion was reduced to 0.2 mm per year.
Implementation of ChlorOut has greatly reduced superheater fouling and enabled an extension of the operation period between planned outages from 4 to 12 weeks. Furthermore, measurements of wall thickness and detailed examination of tubes and deposits have confirmed that superheater corrosion has been minimised.
Examples of plants in which ChlorOut and/or IACM is installed.
|Plant||Plant owner||Type||Fuel||Size, MWth, fuel|
|Dangjin||GS Electric Power and Services||CFB||PKS, wood chips, waste wood||275|
|Helsingborg||Öresundskraft Kraft & Värme AB||PF||Virgin wood||185|
|Västerås||Mälarenergi||CFB||Virgin wood, peat waste wood||170|
|Workington||Iggesund Paperboard Ltd.||BFB||Virgin wood||148|
|Växjö||Växjö Energi AB||BFB||Virgin wood||105|
|Munksund||SCA||CFB||Waste wood, plastic reject||100|
|Idbäcken||Vattenfall AB||BFB||Waste wood||100|
|Donghae||Korea East West Power||CFB||Waste wood||88|
|Kyröskoski||Hämeenkyrön Voima Oy||BFB||Virgin wood, SRF, sludge, peat||80|
|Strongoli||Biomasse Italia S.p.A.||2 x CFB||Virgin wood, agricultural reject||2x75|
|Jordbro CHP||Vattenfall AB||BFB||Waste wood||70|
|Ingelheim||Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG||Grate||Waste wood||65|
|Crotone||Biomasse Crotone S.p.A.||2 x Grate||Virgin wood, agricultural reject||2 x 48|
|Kassel||Städtische Werke Energie + Wärme GmbH||CFB||Waste wood||38|