Chlorout – performance enhancement and cost reduction
ChlorOut AB was founded in 2011 to market the ChlorOut concept and associated services outside the Vattenfall Group. Our clients include boiler manufacturers, power plant technology suppliers and utility companies.
ChlorOut AB is an independent subsidiary company to Vattenfall AB, established in February 2011 to market the ChlorOut concept and associated services outside the Vattenfall Group.
The company's main business is to provide technology licences to clients in the global power industry, primarily boiler manufacturers, technology suppliers and engineering companies looking to boost their offering with an innovative and cost effective way to reduce material and maintenance costs for biomass and waste fired boilers.
Established and validated since more than 10 years, the ChlorOut concept is a technical solution that reduces corrosion and deposit problems in biomass and waste fired boilers.
It also offers the possibility for simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides in the flue gas, thus eliminating the need for traditional deNOx chemicals, which can be problematic from an occupational health and safety perspective. The concept has furthermore been proven effective in reducing dioxin emissions.
Schematic of CFB boiler with the ChlorOut concept installed
The additive is injected into the flue gas upstream of the superheaters. This causes a rapid and effective conversion of the alkali chlorides in the flue gas to sulphates, which are less harmful from a corrosion and deposit point of view.
If ammonium sulphate is used as additive, a simultaneous reduction of the NOx content in the flue gases is also provided (SNCR reaction).
1. (NH4)2SO4→ 2NH3(g) + SO3(g) + H2O
The injected ammonium sulphate is dissociated into NH3 and SO3.
2. SO3 + H2O + 2KCl(g) → 2HCl(g) + K2SO4(s)
SO3 reacts with alkali chlorides and converts them into alkali sulphates and HCl.
3. 4NH3(g) + 4NO (g) + O2(g) →4N2(g) + 6H2O
The ammonia produced by reaction 1 reacts with the flue gas NO.
When NOx reduction is the primary driver for installation of ChlorOut, the technology is referred to as CleaNOx®.
The IACM instrument (In-situ Alkali Chloride Monitor) measures the concentration of gaseous alkali chlorides (KCl and NaCl) on-line. The measurement principle is based on molecular absorption over a certain wavelength interval. IACM enables quality control of the incoming fuel mix as well as control of the required amount of the ChlorOut additive.
Examples of plant experiences of the ChlorOut concept can be found below. A full reference list is available below.
Implementation of ChlorOut has greatly reduced superheater fouling and enabled an extension of the operation period between planned outages from 4 to 12 weeks. Furthermore, measurements of wall thickness and detailed examination of tubes and deposits have confirmed that superheater corrosion has been minimised.
The supplier of the original boiler package for the Brista CHP plant stated: "Given the current fuel mix, without the ChlorOut concept, the carbon steel in superheater 4 would probably only have lasted 3-4 years, compared with the 7-8 years that it actually lasted with the ChlorOut system installed."
Sala-Heby Energi: "The CleaNOx system has helped us improve our environmental performance and also been economically profitable. Maintenance and development of the installation has been undertaken in close cooperation with ChlorOut AB to ascertain and increase efficiency of the equipment."
|Plant||Plant owner||Type||Fuel||Size, MWth, fuel|
|Helsingborg||Öresundskraft Kraft & Värme AB||PF||Virgin wood||185|
|Workington||Iggesund Paperboard Ltd.||BFB||Virgin wood||148|
|Brista||AB Fortum Värme||CFB||Virgin wood||122|
|Växjö (under construction)||Växjö Energi AB||BFB||Virgin wood, peat||105|
|Navia||Ence Energia y Celulosa S.A.||BFB||Virgin wood||100|
|Munksund||Vattenfall AB||CFB||Waste wood, plastic reject||100|
|Idbäcken||Vattenfall AB||BFB||Waste wood||100|
|Poznan||Dalkia Poznan S.A.||BFB||Virgin wood||90|
|Karlstad (under construction)||Karlstad Energi AB||BFB||Virgin wood||88|
|Jordbro P34||Vattenfall AB||PF||Virgin wood||80|
|Strongoli||Biomasse Italia SpA||CFB||Virgin wood, agricultural reject||2x75|
|Jordbro CHP||Vattenfall AB||BFB||Waste wood||70|
|Ingelheim||Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & CO. KG||Grate||Waste wood||65|
|Kassel||Städtische Werke Energie + Wärme GmbH||CFB||Waste wood||38|
|Sala||Sala-Heby Energi AB||BFB||Virgin wood||32|
|Ludvika||Västerbergslagens Energi AB||Grate||Virgin wood||2x10|
|Kalix||Vattenfall AB||Grate||Peat, bark||10|
|Vetlanda||Vetlanda Energi & Teknik AB||2 x Grate||Virgin wood||6&9|
c/o Vattenfall AB
SE - 169 92 Stockholm